Region: The Urban Agglomeration Zagreb
Partners in charge: Northwest Croatia Regional Energy Agency and the Zagreb County
The Urban Agglomeration Zagreb (UAZ) includes total a total of 30 local self-government units, of which 11 cities (including the city of Zagreb) and 19 municipalities. In the area of UAZ live about a quarter (25.3%) of the total population of Croatia. In the last inter-census period, the population grew most dynamically in the area of agglomeration coverage part of Zagreb County. In terms of employment non-economic jobs are in the lead (administration, education, health care, etc.) as well as trade. The City of Zagreb generates one third of the national GDP while the share of the GDP of the UAZ in the national GDP is 68%.
Energy efficiency, energy savings, and renewable energies are important topics in the UAZ, most cities and municipalities have already exchanged city lighting with LED lamps whereas in the energy efficiency domain there have been done refurbishment works in lots of public buildings (town halls, schools, kindergartens, etc) mainly to achieve better thermal efficiency.
Electricity in UAZ is produced by two thermal power plants, cogeneration plants and thermal power plants. Thermal energy is produced and distributed by a single company via district heating systems. There are several cities that do not have district heating systems and use individual heating systems, mostly on natural gas (with a relatively low share of biomass).
Regarding CSSC technologies (mainly batteries), these have relatively low share of integration within the energy sector in the UAZ since there is a low share of renewable energy implemented. However, the region is developing more and more renewable energy, on both private and public land (and buildings). The primary focus is not on developing large scale RES projects due to the UAZ geographical position and density nevertheless there are three projects in development large scale solar thermal fields projects in Zaprešić, Samobor and Velika Gorica and a small hydro plant in Zaprešić. In the private sector there are numerous small-scale projects of PVand there are numerous incentives in industry to integrate PV on different levels.
There are 3 selected target cities, namely Samobor, Zaprešić and Velika Gorica. With different characteristics and profile however all can be concluded to be very important due to their geo traffic position and economic status quo. The energy consumption profiles are similar for the 3 towns and the production as well as the distribution of energy bear similarities as well. All 3 cities are engaged in sustainable panning, all of them having a SEAP and at least one other energy related action plan or strategy and they have also CSSC related initiatives implemented.
In terms of CSSC potential all 3 cities are of great interest due to the great coverage of district heating systems and due to the increased interest in developing intermittent RES sources that lead to a need for energy storage facilities.
Partners in charge: ConPlusUltra GmbH, Energie Kompass GmbH, solar.one Immo GmbH
Austria has set itself ambitious climate policy goals which require a comprehensive transformation of the energy system towards long-term complete decarbonization.
The Austrian federal government plans to achieve climate neutrality by 2040, and an important contribution to this is the decarbonization of the energy system. To this end, the resources available in Austria for the sustainable production of renewable energy are to be expanded. Sector coupling links existing grid infrastructure and energy storage facilities (electricity, gas and district heating lines as well as pumped storage, gas and heat storage) in order to balance out fluctuations in volatile renewable energies (such as wind and solar energy) and to be able to satisfy flexible electricity demand. In addition, this renewable electricity can be used in other sectors. Sector coupling and intelligent sector integration combine energy sources, infrastructures and technologies, thus ensuring security of supply, flexibility and cost efficiency in the best possible way.
The Region Süd Burgenland mostly agricultural and touristic is one of the regions with the most annual sunshine hours, PV installations are very common and play an important role in the energy system of the region as well as biomass which is used for heating purposes.. The cities Oberwart, Pinkafeld, Jennersdorf and Güssing all have their own district heating network and employ thermal storage systems within the district heating grid. Many of the smaller municipalities started to install battery storage (Li-Ion as well as Na-Ion) to provide black-out prevention measures. On the private level adoption of storage technologies is low. Households with PV plants start to pick up on batterie storages as the technology is getting cheaper, and some households use hot water tanks heated by surplus PV power to store energy.”Energy efficiency, energy saving and renewable energies are important topics in the region and the idea of locally produced renewable energy is getting traction, people getting more and more aware of the environmental issues.
Digitalization of the energy system is an important goal in the region with several innovative IT systems in place, like the Demand Side Management system that has been developed in the city of Oberwart. Burgenland is the first Austrian state where the smart meter rollout has been finished, as such all-electricity consumers are equipped with smart metering technology.
Oberwart, the selected target city present high energy storage and sector coupling potential especially in what hydro power and thermal storage is concerned.
Partners in charge: Local Energy Agency Spodnje Podravje
In Slovenia energy policies are being developed at national level while municipalities adopt Local Energy Concepts and plan their short and long-term energy policy. In line with the national energy policy. CSSC concepts are present in the National Energy and Climate Programme according to which Slovenia sets itself to provide adequate technical capacity for the integration of the electricity, gas and district heating sectors. And to develop energy storage technologies, infrastructure and services.
Currently, the use of storage systems such as batteries in combination with self-supply power systems is not particularly interesting due to high installation costs and low electricity price. However, the raising number of individual solar power plants already poses some challenges thus in the future innovative storage solutions will be needed.
Ptuj, the selected target city is a particularly important city in Slovenia, on one hand because it is the oldest recorded one in the country and on the other hand it represents the economic and cultural centre of the Spodnje Podravje area.
Although there are no initiatives in the CSSC field nor local or regional policies the city shows potential for the CSSC technology development particularly in public buildings, in private companies and households. For the industry, beside battery storage, compressed air energy storage could be particularly interesting
Partners in charge: Union of Bulgarian Black Sea Local Authorities – UBBSL
Bulgaria is engaged in developing its energy sector according to the directions set by the EU, there are in force number of strategic documents in the field of energy and climate, the legislation covers energy efficiency and renewable energy production and there are environmental regulations in force as well. Financing sources are available to further support the development of this domain. Bottlenecks are identified in innovation and IT in energy but most importantly a difficulty is seen in the fact that Bulgaria almost totally dependent on imported fuels from Russia. Nevertheless Bulgaria targets 2,645 MW of new renewable energy generation capacity this decade being supported by a diverse and well developed distribution system.
In Varna the RES share counts for more than 16% with a high potential of production from solar and biomass. The renewable energy sector is widely accepted and endorsed by the communities
The city Varna as selected target city is open to new energy technologies, it has engaged in CSSC related initiatives, and it also endorses RES production. Related to CSSC potential the situation is similar with the whole country, namely there is big energy storage potential because the fluctuating of electricity price forces the business and households to look for energy storage decisions.
Region: Alba County
Partners in charge: Alba Local Energy Agency – ALEA
Romania is shifting its policies towards sustainable development, including the transition to a greener and more environmentally sustainable economy. The country aims to reach a target of at least 30.7% of energy from renewable sources, from total energy consumption and in what CSSC is concerned it aims to develop electricity storage capacities in hydroelectric pumping systems and to develop the capacity and mechanisms for the integration of intermittent energy from RES in the National Energy System, in electric storage systems, including small storage capacities at the prosumer’s locations.
Alba County`s interests are in line with the national efforts in the energy field. In terms of energy the production and consumption are influenced by the geography; conventional energy sources are low, renewable energy sources, especially hydro and biomass, are present but still insufficiently exploited.
Alba county having a favourable geographical position and good infrastructure poses a relevant potential for economic growth including the development of its energy sector. The local authorities are engaged in finding solutions to boost RES production at local and regional level which will certainly influence the uptake of the CSSC technologies as well. The local communities in the region are in favour of RES, the acceptance level is high, and the business environment is also showing signs of future rapid development.
The 3 target cities selected Alba Iulia, Sebes and Zlatna have very different profiles and development stages but all of them are interested in taking up innovative solutions in energy and CSSC technologies. The largest RES project implemented by a local authority in Alba County was the installation of photovoltaic panels by Alba Iulia for 4 public buildings located in the city. Zlatna also active in RES development has already installed a renewable energy equipment with hot water storage. All 3 cities are involved in sustainable energy planning. The main energy storage demand in these municipalities is related to the energy consumption in residential sector in peak-hours over 24H intervals, as the electricity consumed in the morning and in the represents about 70% of daily electricity consumption in residential buildings sector.
Country: Czech Republic
Region: South Bohemia / South Moravia
Partners in charge: AgEnDa z.s
The Czech Republic`s energy related strategies and policies do not yet clearly define CSSC, however the situation is expected to change once with the adoption of the new Energy Act. The overall development of energy storage technology in the Czech Republic is associated with the adoption of this Law which will also define the term energy community that ultimately have positive impact on the development of CSSC domain at local and regional levels.
CSSC as domain is still underdeveloped in the country, some applications are present but only as pilot projects, situation that is mainly due to the present competitiveness of the CSSC solutions from the economic point of view which also influences the development of these technologies in the country. The development of storage technologies and sector coupling applications in the country is expected to be modest in the future, due to the country`s natural conditions, however there are optimistic views as well because CSSC is seen to be crucial in helping balance the electricity system (in the context of developing RES production) and in complementing intermittent RES; all this can positively influence the uptake of CSSC technologies especially if future reduction of costs of these technologies are envisaged.
The selected target city Brno is an important city where main CSSC potential are seen to be represented by batteries and at lower extent by hydrogen/fuel cells. In what sector coupling is concerned power to heating in district heating poses potential for future development.
Partners in charge: Slovenská technická univerzita v Bratislave
The Slovak Republic implements all aspects connected to energy-related policies, in accordance with the relevant EU regulations and directives, at country level and also at the level of its individual regions.
In their turn the Slovak regions are in charge to ensure the practical implementation of the nationally adopted relevant EU strategies, approaches and regulations aimed at ensuring energy efficiency, increasing energy efficiency, and reducing emissions of glass gases.
What is particularly interesting for the Slovak municipalities is the possibility of building energy systems for the production of energy for own consumption. Within Bratislava it is mainly about photovoltaics; while in Bratislava-Old town the current trend of installing of photovoltaic panels on buildings (previously on roofs and lately on facades) is limited due to the protected nature of the historic architecture, in the peripheral parts it is possible to produce electricity from biomass, waste incineration, and biodegradable waste. This will be a prerequisite of possible CSSC development potential in the region.
Key decision makers in Bratislava are open to collaboration in pilot programmes and initiatives in the context of the implementation of energy strategies.
Bratislava – the capital of Slovakia as selected target city is a powerful hub being the seat of the Slovak government with many important national institutions. Moreover it is an attractive touristic city with developed industry and wide range of available energy sources. CSSC initiatives are present, one notable example is the GridBooster system but there are individual solutions in family houses as well. The need to boost energy efficiency in Bratislava and the current situation of RES share increase poses potential for CSSC development in the capital but up until now no exact analyses was conducted in this scope.
Partners in charge: Bodensee-Stiftung and Energieagentur Regio Freiburg GmbH
Germany is known for its highly developed secure energy sector. Every aspect of the energy sector development is under the influence of the state. In this perspective CSSC potential and technology uptake also need to undergo the state`s watchful eyes.
The conditions and the environment for the development of RES and further for CSSC technologies uptake is very favourable in Germany: there is a continuous engagement in pushing toward electricity production from renewable energies (photovoltaic systems have become the cheapest source of energy); there are numerous subsidies provided by the state, federal state and individual cities/municipalities for different energy related initiatives (energy efficient refurbishments, e-mobility related projects (charging stations, pedelecs), small PV and CHP installations) which ultimately lead to the increase of the uptake of sector coupling and energy storage technologies. Moreover, the environmental awareness of the German population has risen sharply and power generation from renewable energies is becoming more and more accepted by the population.
In Baden-Württemberg there is a high potential of RES especially solar energy. The local community is strongly committed to the establishment of energy cooperatives and renewable energy regions. The research and development sectors, with high presence in the region further strengthens the domain and promotes technologies through various projects and networks As a strong hub for innovation Baden-Württemberg represents a test site for numerous CSSC pilot projects.
There are several target cities identified for the purpose of the CSSC Lab by the German regional partners. Namely the 8 cities (Gutach im Breisgau, Freiburg im Breisgau, Endingen am Kaiserstuhl, Donaueschingen, Oberndorf am Neckar, Radolfzell am Bodensee, Allensbach, Tengen) although very differnt in terms of size, profile, shape number of inhabitants they all bear similarities when it comes to energy sector and its sustainable development according to national directions. The well-developed and secure energy distribution network as well as the engagement of local political decision makers and other relevant stakeholders in boosting innovative energy solutions and CSSC technologies are all prerequisites of the high energy storage and sector coupling potential that these German cities pose.
Bosnia and Herzgovina
Country: Bosnia and Herzgovina
Region: Canton Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Partner in charge: Sarajevo Economic Region Development Agency SERDA
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a country in Southeast Europe that applied for EU membership in 2016 and is currently awaiting approval of candidate status. Political decision-makers are obliged in the process of accession to base their development plans for (electricity) on EU energy policies. Sustainable development of the energy sector is an imperative task for policy makers and regulators, the goal of BiH being to harmonize the energy sector with the Third Energy Package and future EU directives.
BiH is largely energy independent, mainly because rich in coal this fossil fuel accounts for over 65% of its total primary energy consumption. The country also has a huge hydro potential using only 35% of it. Significant interest is in the construction of both large and small hydropower plants, but investors have expressed great interest also in the production of electricity from renewable sources, primarily from wind farms but also from biomass. Geothermal energy is also taken into consideration when talking about RES. There are favourable conditions for further RESdevelopment, one argument being the fact that RES energy producers have the right of priority connection to network.
All in all the energy sector one of the strongest economic sectors in BiH and decision makers are also looking forward to innovative technologies uptake even if the country currently lacks behind in what research and development is concerned.
Sarajevo, the targeted city by the CSSC Lab regional partner is a large mixed profile city attractive for tourist and industry as well. Energy is mostly used by the residential sector and the electricity provide was from different sources mainly thermal power plants and large hydro ones
Decision makers are engaged in the development of the city on sustainable principles paving the way to the uptake of appropriate CSSC technologies as well.
There are no known CSSC initiatives ongoing in the city beside the involvement as ASP in the CSSC Lab project. Opportunities are seen in sector coupling especially where it may be in both end-use sector coupling and cross-vector integration.
Partner in charge: Inovaciono preduzetnički centar Tehnopolis
Montenegro, a country which has opened accession negotiations with the EU, has an obligation to follow the EU energy policy through harmonization of national strategies, legislation and regulations with the EU. The Energy development of the country is based on 3 pillars: sustainable development of the energetics; development of the competitive market and security of energy supply. There is still much to do in the field of RES development fo the time being the country`s priority for this represent an efficient use of resources that are already used for energy purposes, mainly hydropower and biomass, and the emphasis is given on increased, but the optimal use of local resources for energy production and energy. The Smart Specialization Strategy of Montenegro 2019-2024 sets as strategic priority the Energy and Sustainable Environment. Within this priority, the RES and energy efficiency programmes aim to ensure the increase in the use of RES for electricity and energy efficiency of consumers, while focusing on the innovative technical solutions for production, distribution, optimisation and electricity consumption.
Niksic, the targeted city, situated in the central region of the country is known for having the oldest large hydropower plant in Montenegro. Moreover, the city produces energy at lower extents using heat pumps and biomass (wood) for obtaining thermal energy.
There are no known CSSC initiative ongoing currently in Niksic and there have not been analyses conducted yet to assess the potential of energy storage or the sector coupling opportunities of the city.
Partner in charge: Cross-border Cooperation and European Integration Agency
Moldova set its energy system development vision in the Energy Strategy of Moldova until 2030. One main objective of this strategy is to harmonize the country’s legislation with the EU’s Energy Community acquis, thus ensuring legal and regulatory compatibility with the EU energy markets.
The main pillars and vectors of national energy policies are now the focus on improving energy security, reducing CO2 emissions and sustaining the economy. By 2030, a significant increase in the share of energy from renewable sources in the energy mix shall be ensured according to these national priorities.
The energy sector of the Republic of Moldova is highly dependent on external energy resources (80%), which makes the country’s security vulnerable fact that naturally leads to the necessity of diversifying the energy sources. Moldova has recently started to exploit the potential of renewable energy sources. The country has a very good potential for renewable energy sources and the government offers various support schemes for the development of RES. Currently the most used renewable energy technology is wind energy, followed by hydroelectric plant, biogas cogeneration plants and solar photovoltaic energy.
Cahul, CSSC Lab the targeted city is mostly urban, industrial and residential. There are not yet local policies/regulations to support innovation and deployment of CSSC technologies in the city and energy related projects approached only energy efficiency issues without involving CSSC technologies. Energy storage potential is not yet known and sector coupling opportunities are relevant on in relation to centarlised heating dedicated only for some administrative buildings.