Model cases

This part of the CSSC platform sums up the technologies and gives an overview about existing CSSC solutions which helps in analysation and evaluation of those in order to have a closer look at the most relevant technologies (including factors such as accessibility and impact on the environment and nature). This helps to get more acceptance in the politics and among the citizens. The definition of “accessibility” means that the technology is in use at least at one cite and can be transferred to other city/countries without much change, the image is good and the negative influence on the environment is low. Additionally, information were gathered in cooperation with CSSC Lab Associated Strategic Partners which was a crucial step for defining specified model solutions. 

Below, you can check the most important information for each relevant technology which has been taken into account as a basis for factsheets and specified model solutions. 

 

Type of relevant CSSC technology

Storage technologies

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General data 
Name of the technologyPumped hydropower 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology 
Pumped storage power plants can store large amounts of energy. They use water as a storage medium and consist of an upper and a lower reservoir, which are often artificially constructed. The upper reservoir usually has no natural inflow, while the lower reservoir can flow into a body of water or be self-contained. Surplus energy from the power grid is used to pump water from the lower basin to the upper basin. When electricity is needed, a turbine through which water from the upper basin flows drives a generator, and a transformer is used to feed electricity into the grid. 
   
Degree of efficiency%70-82
AvailabilityTLR*9
Investment costs€/ kW550-2040
Lifetimecycles12800-33000
years40-100
Scalabilitylow
   
Special requirementsHight difference between water and storage lake required, lake or place for basin must be available 
AdvantagesThe technology is mature and established, the power plant benefits from a very long lifetime and low self-discharge with good efficiency and favourable storage costs. Use is partly possible as long-term storage. 
DisadvantagesIt is a storage with very low energy density, it is in increasing competition with other storage. Geographical conditions such as suitable lakes/basins and differences in altitude must be met. The area required is high, the ecological consequences and those on the landscape must be clarified and the appropriate permits obtained. Social acceptance is not always given. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyCompressed air energy storage 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology
A cavern or pressure vessel serves as the storage tank. In the charging process, air is compressed to high pressures with the help of electricity and stored. In the discharge process, the compressed air is expanded and drives a turbine. Before or during the discharge process, the air must be heated. In the adiabatic system, the heat energy generated during compression is stored and used in the discharge process. Diabatic systems operate without heat storage; the heat is added additionally, for example by a natural gas burner. Compressed air storage systems are used for electricity-to-electricity storage for daily and weekly balancing or for the provision of balancing energy. Systems with a capacity of 10 to 300 MW are common. In large systems, salt domes of several 100,000 m3 are used as storage, while smaller systems use pressure cylinders or pressure tanks.
   
Degree of efficiency%Diabat: 40-55, adiabat: 60-68, isotherm: 95
AvailabilityTLR*6-7
Investment costs€/ kWDiabat: 340-1145, adiabat: 600-800
LifetimecyclesDiabat: 8620-17100, adiabat: NA, isotherm: NA
yearsDiabat: 40, adiabat: NA, isotherm: NA
ScalabilityLow
   
Special requirementsCavern or pressure vessel 
AdvantagesIf the storage is underground, only a small footprint is required on the surface. Storage, compressors and turbines have a long lifetime, advantage is also the low self-discharge. There is a good correlation between high wind areas and cavern sites. New decentralized concepts are promising. 
DisadvantagesUnderground storage facilities are subject to geographic limitations and must meet certain geological conditions. The investment costs are high, the efficiency low. There is competition in the use of suitable caverns as well as increasing competition with other storage facilities. A coherent thermal concept is required for compressed air storage facilities to be operated purely on a renewable basis. At present, the storage facilities are still the subject of research and demonstration, and rapid economic implementation is not to be expected. 
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General data 
Name of the technologySensible heat storage 
Form of energy intake/ outputHeat to heat 
Storage typeLong-term storage 
   
Description of the technology  
In sensible heat storage, the temperature of the storage medium changes perceptibly, it is heated or cooled. As a rule, the temperature differences between the storage medium and the environment are greater than in other storage systems, which is why insulation is of central importance. The storage medium is often water. Sensible heat storage systems are often used in building services for the operation of buffer storage tanks. However, they are also suitable as seasonal storage units. 
   
Degree of efficiency%45-75
AvailabilityTLR*9
Investment costs€/ kW80-130
Lifetimecycles5000
 yearsNA
Scalability Medium
   
Special requirementsDepending on construction and size, space for basin or tank, gravel pit or water tower necessary 
AdvantagesCost-effective, established, proven and simple technology, many plants are in operation. Often implemented in combination with solar energy. Sensitive heat storage is necessary for the use of geothermal energy, heat pumps and to make cogeneration more flexible, and represents an opportunity for district heating. 
DisadvantagesEfficiencies are in the medium range, high self-discharge in stand-by. Depending on the design, impacts on nature and the landscape are to be expected. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyLatent heat storage 
Form of energy intake/ outputHeat to heat 
Storage typeShort- and long-term storage 
   
Description of the technology 
In latent heat storages, the energy required for a phase change is stored in addition to the sensible heat. In practice, this is usually the solid-liquid transition. The fields of application are manifold. One focus is on systems that use steam or steam cycles, for example in solar thermal energy or in the process industry. 
   
Degree of efficiency%75-90
AvailabilityTLR*7-8
Investment costs€/ kW80-160
Lifetimecycles5000
 yearsNA
Scalability medium
   
Special requirementsNA 
AdvantagesThe advantages include high efficiencies, future low investment costs and high stored energy density. Research and development potentials are large. 
DisadvantagesTechnology still maturing, costs relatively high. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyFlywheels 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology 
Flywheel storage systems are mechanical energy storage systems based on one or more flywheels. In the storage process, a rotor is accelerated to very high speeds by means of electrical energy and the energy is stored in the form of kinetic energy. In the discharge process, the motor acts as a generator, decelerating the rotor by generating electric current. The storage systems are used, for example, in the field of mobility, grid services and emergency power supply. There are two types of flywheels, one is making use of rail vehicles. 
   
Degree of efficiency%83-93
AvailabilityTLR*8-9
Investment costs€/ kW125-2775
Lifetimecycles> 1 mio
 years72-100
Scalability Medium 
   
Special requirementsDepending on the type, rail vehicle necessary 
AdvantagesAdvantages are high efficiencies, high energy density and fast charging capability. Furthermore, a long service life can be expected and maintenance requirements are low. 
DisadvantagesThe technology poses safety risks due to rotating masses. Vacuum chambers and a cooling system for superconducting magnetic bearings are required. High self-discharge, there are competing technologies. 
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General data 
Name of the technologySupercapacitors 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology 
Supercapacitors are electrochemical capacitors. Energy storage in a capacitor is based on maintaining an electric field in which energy is stored. They are capable of providing large power in a limited time range. This makes them suitable for providing start-up energy in the transport sector, for supporting supply systems in connection with fail-safety and for bridging or balancing short-term load fluctuations. They are used, for example, in hybrid cars, public buses, solar systems and wind turbines. 
   
Degree of efficiency%90-95
AvailabilityTLR*NA
Investment costs€/ kW125-300
Lifetimecycles1 Mio
 years10
Scalability High
   
Special requirements  
AdvantagesAdvantages are very high efficiency, high performance and long cycle life. They are quick and easy to charge. Suitable for use in applications with the highest requirements for response times. They offer significantly higher power density and significantly higher energy density than traditional energy storage systems. 
DisadvantagesEnergy density is low, cost per installed energy is high. High power applications can alternatively be taken over by “power batteries”. 

Batteries

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General data 
Name of the technologyLithium-ion batteries 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology 
Together with accumulators, batteries belong to the group of electrochemical energy storage devices. Electrochemical energy storage systems consist of electrodes that are connected to each other via an electrolyte as an ion-conducting phase. Electrical energy can be extracted from the systems, accumulators can both absorb and release energy. Chemical reactions take place during the processes in which electrical charge is transferred. Electrochemical energy storage systems are divided into low-temperature batteries (e.g. lead-acid, nickel and lithium batteries) and high-temperature batteries (sodium-sulfur batteries), and also into those with external storage (redox flow batteries) and those with internal storage (most batteries). Lithium-ion batteries are suitable as buffer storage for renewable energies, for load management, for grid services and in emergency power supply. They are also used in mobile applications such as electromobility, notebooks and aviation. 
   
Degree of efficiency%90-97
AvailabilityTLR*8
Investment costs€/ kW170-600
Lifetimecycles400-1900
 years15
Scalability High 
   
Special requirements  
AdvantagesThe lithium battery has the highest energy density and efficiency among batteries. The production of large quantities leads to the reduction of manufacturing costs. Application in stationary and mobile areas is possible, new active materials are currently being developed. 
DisadvantagesUntil now, the cost of the battery has been high and its service life limited. Production, packaging and cooling of the battery are expensive. Lithium deposits are limited, there are acceptance problems regarding the mining of lithium, and the environmental impact is controversial. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyLead-acid batteries 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology 
Together with accumulators, batteries belong to the group of electrochemical energy storage devices. Electrochemical energy storage systems consist of electrodes that are connected to each other via an electrolyte as an ion-conducting phase. Electrical energy can be extracted from the systems, accumulators can both absorb and release energy. Chemical reactions take place during the processes in which electrical charge is transferred. Electrochemical energy storage systems are divided into low-temperature batteries (e.g. lead-acid, nickel and lithium batteries) and high-temperature batteries (sodium-sulfur batteries), and also into those with external storage (redox flow batteries) and those with internal storage (most batteries). Lead-acid batteries are used in emergency power supply and grid services, iin the intermediate storage of electrical (renewable) energy or as a starter battery. 
   
Degree of efficiency%74-89
AvailabilityTLR*9
Investment costs€/ kW200-490
Lifetimecycles203-1315
 years10
Scalability High 
   
Special requirements  
AdvantagesIt is the most established battery technology, the battery system is cheap and has an acceptable energy and power density for stationary applications. Compared to lithium and sodium batteries, the lead-acid battery is very safe. Much experience has been gained with the battery type worldwide, and there are many manufacturers. Due to mass production, the battery is low cost, production is independent in location conditions. The battery is particularly suitable as a low-cost storage for island grids. 
DisadvantagesA disadvantage is the limited service life and limited availability of lead deposits. Lithium batteries compete by lowering costs. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyRedox flow batteries 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology  
  
   
Degree of efficiency%71-83
AvailabilityTLR*6
Investment costs€/ kW710-1790
Lifetimecycles5755-8593
 years15
Scalability High 
   
Special requirements  
AdvantagesAdvantages are the long cycle life as well as unlimited locations, the competitive pressure increases. There are no resource bottlenecks. Energy and power are independently scalable, spatial separation of storage tank and reaction cell is possible. 
DisadvantagesA disadvantage is the low energy density. The acidic liquids cause leakage, there are legal problems with battery approval due to large amounts of acid. The pumps consume electricity and require maintenance. 
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General data 
Name of the technology(High temperature) sodium-based batteries 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power 
Storage typeShort-term storage 
   
Description of the technology 
Together with accumulators, batteries belong to the group of electrochemical energy storage devices. Electrochemical energy storage systems consist of electrodes that are connected to each other via an electrolyte as an ion-conducting phase. Electrical energy can be extracted from the systems, accumulators can both absorb and release energy. Chemical reactions take place during the processes in which electrical charge is transferred. Electrochemical energy storage systems are divided into low-temperature batteries (e.g. lead-acid, nickel and lithium batteries) and high-temperature batteries (sodium-sulfur batteries), and also into those with external storage (redox flow batteries) and those with internal storage (most batteries). Area of application is stationary electricity storage (from approx. 40 kWh to MWh), for commercial purposes, grid operation and grid services. Can be used as storage for regenerative electricity (increase of self-consumption). 
   
Degree of efficiency%72-81
AvailabilityTLR*7-8
Investment costs€/ kW285-1075
Lifetimecycles2500-8250
 years17
Scalability High 
   
Special requirements  
AdvantagesAdvantageous are high energy density and long calendar life, the battery is temperature-resistent. Many stationary plants exist, there are no local requirements. Raw materials for production (Na and S) are cheap and there are few restrictions on availability. 
DisadvantagesDisadvantages are the high costs for heating and cooling as well as thermal losses. There are also safety problems (fire). The battery competes with lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries. Environmental influences of sodium must be taken into account. 

Power to heating (and cooling)

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General data 
Name of the technologyFuel cell 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power, power to heat, power to mobility 
   
Description of the technology 
Fuel cells convert natural gas into hydrogen, which reacts with added oxygen from the air in a reverse electrolysis process to form water. This produces thermal and electrical energy. A distinction is made between low-temperature and high-temperature fuel cells, and between stationary and mobile applications. Fuel cells can be used for off-grid power supply and to supply buildings with heat and electricity (fuel cell heating systems) as well as to power vehicles. Fuel cell heating systems require a natural gas connection, a buffer storage tank and a central heating system with central water heating. Hydrogen filling stations are required for vehicle propulsion; the technology is only climate-friendly if the hydrogen is produced using surplus renewable electricity. 
   
Degree of efficiency%43-53
AvailabilityTLR*8
Investment costs€/ kWNA
LifetimecyclesNA
 yearsNA
   
ScalabilityHigh  
Special requirementsFuel cell heating systems require a natural gas connection, a buffer storage tank and a central heating system with central water heating. Hydrogen filling stations are required for vehicle propulsion. For climate-friendly hydrogen production, surplus renewable electricity is needed. 
AdvantagesOne advantage of the fuel cell is its self-sufficient application; electrical and thermal energy are generated directly on site. The so-called cold combustion is particularly efficient and low in pollutants, also the devices are very low in wear and maintenance. Installation, operation and maintenance are not very complicated. They have high electrical efficiency and are easy to control, and modular design makes it easy to expand their output. They have high efficiency at full load. Fuel cells are lighter than accumulators, and pollutant and noise emissions are low. In the transport sector, ranges of up to 700 km are possible. There is high development potential. 
DisadvantagesSo far, the investment costs are high and the operating experience in field tests is low, the service life is comparatively short, and there are few suppliers. Because of further development steps, these disadvantages could become less important in the future, especially with regard to investment costs. In the transportation sector, there are only a few and expensive hydrogen cars on the market so far, and hydrogen filling stations are not yet available nationwide. The production and storage of hydrogen must be guaranteed, and the costs and climate impact of electricity influence the operating costs and environmental compatibility of the technology. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyPower to heating (and cooling) in buildings: heat pump 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to heat 
   
Description of the technology 
A heat pump absorbs ambient heat, e.g. from the air, groundwater or the earth. In the process, a refrigerant heats up in the evaporator, which changes from the liquid to the gaseous state. In an electronically driven compressor, the pressure on the gaseous refrigerant is increased, further raising the temperature of the medium. The heat is then transferred to the heating water, and the gaseous refrigerant cools down and becomes liquid again. Still under pressure, it is expanded in an expansion valve, cools further and flows again into the evaporator. Depending on the type, heat pumps vary in efficiency. Heat pumps are used in the building sector; good insulation is essential. The use of a heat pump with surface heating is particularly efficient at temperatures below 35°C. Green electricity should be used for climate-friendly operation. Large heat pumps are also used in district heating. 
   
Degree of efficiency%0,33 kWhel per kWhth
AvailabilityTLR*4-9
Investment costs€/ kWNA
LifetimecyclesNA
 years15-20
Scalability High 
   
Special requirementsAir, water or other heat storage nice to have, power from renewable energy 
AdvantagesHigh energy efficiency, the heat pump takes about 75% of the energy needed for heating from the environment. The remaining 25% of the energy is provided by electricity. This makes the heat pump the most climate-friendly form of heat generation, fuels are not required. Heat pumps require little maintenance and heating costs are low. Heat pumps can be used in new and old buildings. In summer, with the appropriate technical equipment, it is possible to cool with heat pumps. 
DisadvantagesDisadvantage of heat pumps are high acquisition costs. Depending on the type, high development costs and permits are required. For the installation is the soil condition is relevant. In addition, the flow temperature may be limited.   
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General data
Name of the technologyPower to heating in district heating: combination of a CHP and a P2H-module
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to heat
  
Description of the technology
One possibility of realizing power to heating in district heating is the combination of a cogeneration plant and a power-to-heat-module (heating rod or electrode boiler) feeding heat into a heat grid system or a heat storage, using surplus electricity from renewable sources. Using biomass or fossil fuels, a CHP unit generates heat, which is fed into a heat storage tank or into the heating network. In times of electricity surpluses from renewable energies, electricity is converted into heat by the power-to-heat module, stored or immediately transferred to the heating network. During these times, the CHP can be scaled back and resources saved.
  
Degree of efficiency%
AvailabilityTLR*
Investment costs€/ kW
Lifetimecycles
 years
  
ScalabilityHigh 
Special requirementsRenewable electricity surplus mandatory; air, water or other heat storage useful
AdvantagesShort response times of the CHP and P2H mode, flexible reactions to fluctuations in the power grid possible, contribution to security of supply. Utilization and storage of electricity surpluses from renewable energies. In times of abundant electricity, saving of resources for the CHP plant.
DisadvantagesAvailability of renewable electricity with sufficient utilization necessary, acceptance for this type of power-to-heat solutions is limited.
  
Regional specifics
GermanyPossible operators: Public utilities, companies, public administration, Funding via national funding is possible
MontenegroDistrict heating in Montenegro exists on a very limited scale. At present, district heating solutions are being neither developed nor explored. According to available information, there are only two operational boilers in Pljevlja (PE Grijanje and Sports Center Ada) that produce heat for district heating for a limited number of consumers located in the city centre. Buildings in the service sector are usually equipped with a central heating system based on light fuel oil, electricity, coal or biomass. Buildings in the residential sector tend to be heated and cooled by individual systems such as air-conditioners, including air source heat pumps, individual boilers for apartments or houses and biomass stoves
  
  
Example
GermanyIntercommunal local heating supply Oberwolfach and Wolfach (KWA GmbH u. Co Oberwolfach KG) (Interkommunale Nahwärmeversorgung Oberwolfach und Wolfach (badenova.de))
The aim of the project is to modernize and expand the existing local heating supply in the areas of the neighboring community of Wolfach and the Oberwolfach district, thus increasing the local contribution to climate protection. The heart of the existing local heating supply is the woodchip boiler in the heating system. To optimize efficiency and heat yield, an additional heat pump will be installed in the heating system. This is to use both the waste heat of the block-type thermal power station and the additional heat of the wood heating system as a source, which is made usable via exhaust gas condensation.
MontenegroMunicipality of Pljevlja
SlovakiaCogeneration units MP 1500 C-CU and MP 250 N-CU use standard gas and supply greenhouse for growing tomatoes. Electric energy is used for supply of the lighting and heated water is used to heat the greenhouse. MP 1500 C-CU with Caterpillar engine is installed in noiseproof 40 ft container with separate room for power and control cabinets. Exhaust gas heat exchanger with bypass, exhaust silencer and ventilation duct with dust filters are installed on the roof.
MP 250 N-CU with MAN engine is installed in custom made noiseproof canopy suitable for outdoor installation.
Cogeneration unit MP 1250 J-BCU with Jenbacher engine is installed in noiseproof 40 ft container. Due to time pressure reasons whole assembly of the CHP has been done directly on the installation site. Container features three separate rooms. Main room contains biogas genset with 999 kW power and components of heating circuit, gas regulation elements, lube oil system and other appliances. Power cabinets are located in separate room with own entrance for lowering noise impact of the engine to operator. Third smallest room is for inlet air treatment. Exhaust gas heat exchanger is located on the container roof. Stack with exhaust silencer, outlet heat exchanger and external dry coolers are located next to the container.
Cogeneration units Martin Power based on modified modern engines MTU are own developement of TTS Martin. Until now two MP 250 M-DCU prototypes has been put into continuous operation. Fuel used in these engines are vegetable oils, animal fats and oils made from waste plastics. Second cogeneration unit of this type is installed in Moldava nad Bodvou in noiseproof canopy. Again also heated air is used besides standard power and heating water usage. This kind of using less valuable and waste fuels for energetic purposes with efficiency over 90% in modern commonrail engines is real green energy.
https://www.tts-martin.sk/en/projects/cogeneration-units/ 
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General data 
Name of the technologyCombined heat and power plant 
Form of energy intake/ outputHeat to heat, heat to power 
   
Description of the technology 
One possibility to realize power to heating in district heating is the combination of a CHP and a power-to-heat-module (heating rod or electrode boiler) feeding heat into a heat grid system or a heat storage, using surplus electricity from renewable sources. Using biomass or fossil fuels, an engine drives an electricity generator that is connected to the grid. The resulting heat can be used directly or can be fed into a storage tank or into the heating network. From an ecological point of view, heat should be used on site as far as possible. In times of electricity surpluses from renewable energies, electricity is converted into heat by the power-to-heat module, stored or immediately transferred to the heating network. During these times, the CHP can be scaled back and resources saved. The CHP units can have very different outputs and range from Nano-CHP units with 2.5 kW to large plants with up to 10 MW. 
   
Degree of efficiency%85
AvailabilityTLR*9
Investment costs€/ kW350-1000
LifetimecyclesNA
 years30
Scalability High 
   
Special requirementsRenewable fuel, heat storage and/or connection to heat network required 
AdvantagesCHP units are very efficient in energy generation. They generate electricity and heat at the same time, and there are no or only few transport routes. High flexibility possible due to additionally installed heat storage and backup heating systems, power-modulated operation is state of the art today. 
DisadvantagesThe heat demand is subject to seasonal fluctuations, and energy losses occur when heat is stored for longer periods. CHP units are primarily suitable for applications that require heat and power all year round. Fossil fuels, biogas or biomass are required for the drive. Operating costs and environmental impact depend on the price of the raw material used (usually biomass or natural gas). For climate-friendly energy generation, biomass should be used, but the availability is limited and the use is only sustainable to a limited extent. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyPtH-module: heating element heating rod or electrode boiler  
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to heat 
   
Description of the technology 
As a PtH module in combination with a CHP unit and a heat storage tank, heating rods are suitable for feeding surplus electricity from renewable energies into the heating grid as heat. In addition, they can be combined with a buffer storage tank to heat residential buildings. Depending on the required output, several heating elements are interconnected. 
   
Degree of efficiency%NA
AvailabilityTLR* 
Investment costs€/ kWNA
Lifetimecycles 
 years 
Scalability High 
   
Special requirements  
AdvantagesReaching high temperatures is possible. 
DisadvantagesMode of operation “immersion heater principle”, no efficient regeneration possible, heat storage or good controllability of existing heat generation required. Significantly less efficient than the heat pump, but higher temperature range can be achieved. High demand for renewable electricity. Limited acceptance for PtH systems. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyPtH in industry and PtH-module: electrode boilers 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to heat 
Suitable application fieldsIndustry 
   
Description of the technology 
As a PtH-module, electrode boilers can be a solution for industrial companies with a high demand for hot water and heat or, in combination with a CHP unit, contribute to the district heating supply (see PtH in district heating). Electrode boilers work according to the “immersion heater principle”, the technology with a capacity above 5 MW has been tested for industrial companies for years and is now increasingly used. Compared to other technologies, the specific investment costs are low. 
   
Degree of efficiency%1 kWhel per kWhth
AvailabilityTLR*8-9
Investment costs€/ kWIndustrial sector 100-200, district heating application: 75-150
Lifetimecycles 
 years 
Scalability High 
   
Special requirementsRenewable electricity surplus mandatory 
AdvantagesGeneration of high temperatures up to 500°C possible, applicable in commercial and industrial operation. Short response times, low operating times and flexible adaptation to fluctuating power feeds from renewable energies possible. Simple technology, many plants already in operation, no technical risk. 
DisadvantagesMode of operation “immersion heater principle”, no efficient regeneration possible, heat storage or good controllability of existing heat generation required. Significantly less efficient than the heat pump, but higher temperature range can be achieved. High demand for renewable electricity. Limited acceptance for PtH systems. 

Power to mobiliy

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General data 
Name of the technologyP2Mobility: battery-powered electric vehicles (data valid for lithium-ion-battries excluding the vehicle) 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to power, power to mobility 
   
Description of the technology 
“Battery-powered electric vehicles are powered by electrical energy from a battery, usually a lithium-ion battery. Vehicles include, for example, battery-powered cars, buses and motorcycles. Once the battery has been discharged, it must be recharged at electric charging stations. 
Together with accumulators, batteries belong to the group of electrochemical energy storage devices. Electrochemical energy storage systems consist of electrodes that are connected to each other via an electrolyte as an ion-conducting phase. Electrical energy can be extracted from the systems, accumulators can both absorb and release energy. Chemical reactions take place during the processes in which electrical charge is transferred. Electrochemical energy storage systems are divided into low-temperature batteries (e.g. lead-acid, nickel and lithium batteries) and high-temperature batteries (sodium-sulfur batteries), and also into those with external storage (redox flow batteries) and those with internal storage (most batteries). Lithium-ion batteries are suitable as buffer storage for renewable energies, for load management, for grid services and in emergency power supply. They are also used in mobile applications such as electromobility, notebooks and aviation.” 
   
Degree of efficiency%90-97
AvailabilityTLR*8
Investment costs€/ kW200-490
Lifetimecycles400-1900
 years15
Scalability High 
   
Special requirementsComprehensive charging infrastructure with renewable electricity 
AdvantagesBattery-powered vehicles are around 3 to 4 times more efficient than vehicles with conventional drives. Another positive aspect is that no emissions are produced when driving, and electromobility can make a significant contribution to improving air quality in cities. Climate and environmental friendliness depend on whether the vehicle is powered by green electricity. Electromobility is considered a driver for the development of battery technologies such as the lithium battery. The lithium battery has the highest energy density and efficiency among batteries. The production of large quantities leads to the reduction of manufacturing costs. Application in stationary and mobile fields is possible. New active materials are currently being developed. The topic of “second life” is considered promising; after the battery has been used in the vehicle, it can be used for electricity storage after a few years at significantly lower investment costs. 
DisadvantagesThe production of electric vehicles requires a lot of energy and resources. Efficient use of materials and recycling are of great importance for the environmental balance. To date, the cost of the lithium battery has been high and its service life limited. Production, packaging and cooling of the battery are costly. Lithium deposits are limited, there are acceptance problems regarding the mining of lithium, and the environmental impact is controversial. Overall, electric vehicles can make an important contribution to more climate-friendly traffic, but the switch to electromobility in individual traffic alone is not enough to make traffic sustainable and fit for the future. Problems such as noise, land and resource consumption can only be solved if other forms of mobility (especially public transport and cycling) gain in importance. 

Power- to-Gas

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General data 
Name of the technologyPower-to-hydrogen (natural gas grid, low-temperature electrolysis) 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to gas 
   
Description of the technology 
Hydrogen can be produced by electrolysis by splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using electrical energy. So far, this has mainly been done in low-temperature processes, but high-temperature processes could gain in importance in the future. In electrolysis, about 80 percent of the energy input is converted into hydrogen; heat losses in particular reduce the efficiency. The decisive factors for operating costs and climate impact are the power source and the substituted energy carrier. Areas of application for hydrogen include transportation, existing buildings, oil refineries, steel production and industrial process heat. 
   
Degree of efficiency%57-80
AvailabilityTLR*8-9
Investment costs€/ kWAlkaline elektrolysis: 800-1500; PEM-electrolysis: 2000-6000
Lifetimecycles 
 years 
Scalability Medium 
   
Special requirementsGas grid necessary 
AdvantagesAlong with methane, hydrogen is one of the few options for long-term storage; large amounts of energy can be stored with low land consumption. The starting material water is available in unlimited quantities. Compared to methane, hydrogen is less expensive. Hydrogen is an energy carrier with high energy density and can be used in all energy sectors. It is easily transportable, storable and can be used both centrally and decentrally. 
DisadvantagesDevelopment of regenerative power sources with sufficient utilization necessary, acceptance of this is limited. Up to now, the production of hydrogen has been associated with relatively high costs, and the efficiency of electricity-gas end use is comparatively low. Unlike methane or natural gas, an infrastructure is not yet available on a mass scale or nationwide. Hydrogen has a lower efficiency and a one-third lower storage density than methane. Direct injection into the natural gas grid is usually limited to 2%. Hydrogen competes with other long-term storage systems, and there is also competition in the use of suitable caverns for storing other substances. 
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General data 
Name of the technologyPower-to-methane (natural gas grid, methanation) 
Form of energy intake/ outputPower to gas 
Storage typeLong-term storage possible 
   
Description of the technology 
In the first step, hydrogen is produced by means of electrolysis. The second step is methanation, in which the hydrogen is converted with carbon dioxide into methane and water. In electrolysis, about 80 percent of the energy introduced is converted into hydrogen; heat losses in particular lower the efficiency. Methanation also has a utilization rate of about 80 percent if the waste heat is also used. There are various methanation processes, both chemical and biological. The decisive factors for the operating costs and the climate impact are the power source and the substituted energy carrier. Fields of application are traffic, existing buildings as well as process heat in industry. 
   
Degree of efficiency%50-78
AvailabilityTLR*Catalytic: 8, biologic: 7
Investment costs€/ kW 
Lifetimecycles 
 years 
Scalability Medium 
   
Special requirementsHydrogen storage and gas grid necessary 
AdvantagesAlong with hydrogen, methane is one of the few options for long-term storage; large amounts of energy can be stored with low land consumption. Methane has a high energy density; compared to hydrogen, methane is easier and less expensive to transport, compress, store and store. Very high storage capacities are available. The existing natural gas infrastructure, including application technologies, can be fully utilized. There are no feed-in limits to the natural gas grid. 
DisadvantagesDevelopment of regenerative power sources with sufficient utilization necessary, acceptance of this is limited. Up to now, the production of methane has been associated with relatively high costs, and the efficiency of electricity-gas end use is comparatively low. Compared to hydrogen, a further conversion step with waste heat and supply of CO2 is necessary, resulting in lower efficiency in the overall process. In addition, a CO2 source is necessary, which influences the choice of location, unless it is taken from the air. The technological maturity of methanation is still low. Continuous methanation requires upstream hydrogen. Methane competes with other long-term storage options. 

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